General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

Students use a variety of strategies and cueing systems as they interact with oral, print and other media texts. They preview, ask questions and set purposes. Students attend to the ideas being presented, make and confirm predictions and inferences, and monitor their understanding. As they interact with texts, students respond by reflecting, creating, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating. Successful learners adapt these strategies as they construct meaning from a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

Making meaning of oral, print and other media texts is fundamental to English language arts. Through these texts, students experience a variety of situations, people and cultures, and learn about themselves. Oral, print and other media texts allow for multiple interpretations. Students can respond personally to texts, by relating them to their prior knowledge, to their feelings and experiences, and to other texts. Through personal response, students explore and form values and beliefs. They respond critically to texts, by making interpretations and evaluating ideas, forms and techniques.

Students enhance their comprehension of and response to oral, print and other media texts through learning experiences in all the general outcomes. Exploratory talk and writing, for example, strengthen student understanding and evaluation of texts. Their appreciation of literary texts provides students with a range of topics and encourages them to experiment with a variety of forms in their own communication. Responding to oral, print and other media texts provides students with new insights.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues
Use prior knowledge

  • discuss how interpretations of the same text might vary, according to the prior knowledge and experiences of various readers
  • use previous reading experiences, personal experiences and prior knowledge as a basis for reflecting on and interpreting ideas encountered in texts

Use comprehension strategies

  • identify explicit and implicit ideas and information in texts; listen and respond to various interpretations of the same text
  • select appropriate reading rate and strategies for comprehending texts less closely connected to prior knowledge and personal experiences
  • preview complex texts as to their intent, content and structure, and use this information to set a purpose and select strategies for reading

Use textual cues

  • use knowledge of visual and textual cues and structural features when skimming and scanning various print and other media texts to locate relevant information effectively and efficiently
  • analyze and discuss how the structural features of informational materials, such as textbooks, bibliographies, databases, catalogues, web sites, commercials and newscasts, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of communication

Use phonics and structural analysis

  • apply and explain effective procedures for identifying and comprehending words in context; adjust procedures according to the purpose for reading and the complexity of the texts

Use references

  • use reference materials, including a writer’s handbook, to verify correct usage, address uncertainties and solve problems that arise

2.2 Respond to Texts
Experience various texts

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as essays, broadcast advertisements, novels, poetry, documentaries, films, electronic magazines and realistic fiction
  • identify and discuss how timeless themes are developed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • consider historical context when developing own points of view or interpretations of oral, print and other media texts
  • compare and contrast own life situation with themes of oral, print and other media texts
  • express the themes of oral, print or other media texts in different forms or genres
  • consider peers’ interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, referring to the texts for supporting or contradicting evidence

Construct meaning from texts

  • analyze how the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts provide insight into those of self and others
  • identify and discuss theme and point of view in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss and explain various interpretations of the same oral, print or other media text
  • relate the themes, emotions and experiences portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to issues of personal interest or significance

2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques
Understand forms and genres

  • explain the relationships between purposes and characteristics of various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of different types of media texts for presenting ideas and information

Understand techniques and elements

  • compare the development of character, plot and theme in two oral, print or other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts, considering the believability of plot and setting, the credibility of characters, and the development and resolution of conflict
  • compare a main character in one text to the main character in another text from a different era, genre or medium
  • identify ways that a change in narrator might affect the overall meaning of oral, print and other media texts
  • summarize the content of media texts, and suggest alternative treatments

Experiment with language

  • analyze creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as advertisements, electronic magazines and the Internet; recognize how imagery and figurative language, such as metaphor, create a dominant impression, mood and tone

2.4 Create Original Text
Generate ideas

  • generalize from own experience to create oral, print and other media texts on a theme

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

  • create oral, print and other media texts on common literary themes

Structure texts

  • create oral, print and other media texts that interrelate plot, setting and character, and reveal the significance of the action
  • create oral, print and other media texts that include main and minor characters, and show how the main character develops and changes as a result of the action and events

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